(1) A timing belt or timing chain links the crankshaft to the camshaft so that the valves are in sync with the pistons.(2) Since the advent of common rail fuel injection, the mechanical camshaft no longer plays a role in fuel management.(3) During conventional combustion engine operation, the camshaft causes the intake and exhaust valves to open and close in a synchronized fashion to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust.(4) Rather than open and close its valves with conventional camshaft , pushrods or cam chain, lifters, rocker arms and valve springs, the camless engine employs an electro-hydraulic actuator mounted above the valves.(5) The combination of a center-mounted spool valve and check valve allow the camshaft 's torsional energy to assist actuation, rather than oppose it.(6) But unlike a living brain that controls heart rate and respiration, a conventional camshaft can't alter the valve events.(7) By placing a cam phasing system on the camshaft , a pushrod engine can be tuned to take much higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation.(8) Opening and closing the 20 valves are new camshafts .(9) It has no crankshaft, camshafts , oil pump or valvetrain.(10) The newer model has just four cylinders but has been beefed up in other areas with twin overhead camshafts , four valves per cylinder, turbocharger, intercooler and an electronically controlled, high pressure, fuel injection system.(11) Built to perform a wide range of activities - from playing a trumpet to simulating the digestive system of a duck - these automata, powered by intricate systems of gears and camshafts , were miracles of craftsmanship and mechanical skill.(12) For example, electromechanical actuators could replace standard camshafts for controlling valve opening.(13) Both engines incorporate dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder.(14) To save additional space, the exhaust camshafts are driven by secondary chains attached to the intake camshafts , and the starter motor is mounted directly above the transmission.(15) Such performance required what was then advanced technology: fuel injection, twin camshafts , often four valves per cylinder.(16) The result is a 2.2-litre engine with 16 valves, twin overhead camshafts and a pair of vibration-reducing balancer shafts.
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